Types of metro stations
See also: Station depths и Traffic.
- Dachnoye (closed)
- Гражданский проспектru
- Technological Institute-1
- Kirovsky Zavod
- Богатырская (проект)ru
- Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo-2
- Karetnaya (project)
- Putilovskaya (under construction)
- Leninsky Prospect
- Prospect Veteranov
- Park Pobedy
- Gostiny Dvor
- Ploshchad Alexandra Nevskogo-1
- Prospect Prosveshcheniya
- Улица Дыбенкоru
- Komendantsky Prospekt
- Krestovsky Ostrov
- Bronevaya (project)
- Ploshchad Lenina
- Площадь Восстанияru
- Nevsky Prospekt
- Sennaya Ploshchad
- Technological Institute-2
- Moskovskiye Vorota
- Gorny Institute (under construction)
- Teatralnaya (under construction)
- Обводный каналru
- Prospect Slavy
- Borovaya (project)
- Zastavskaya (project)
- Yugo-Zapadnaya (under construction)
- Площадь Мужестваru
- Черная Речкаru
- Ligovsky Prospekt
- Проспект Большевиковru
- Staraya Derevnya
- Sportivnaya (lower hall)
- Sportivnaya (upper hall)
Ground stations (◉ on the map below)
There are two types of ground stations - open and closed. Both are built directly on the surface of the earth. However, an open ground station is only platforms with canopies, exposed to wind and precipitation, like ordinary railway stations. Closed ground stations are completely hidden under the walls and ceiling.
In Leningrad at one time there was the only open ground station - Dachnoye (closed), not counting service stations on the territory of different metro depots. Operational experience has clearly shown that such stations, despite their cheapness, do not need to be built anymore. And today all ground stations in Saint-Petersburg are closed.
Column stations (◉ on the map below)
Stations of this type consist of a central and two side halls, the ceiling structures of which (the so—called rings of linings) are based on a structural element common to each pair of halls - a column.
The main advantage of column-type stations is a much larger throughput capacity than that of a pylon station. But less than that of a single-arched one.
Centipedes (column stations of shallow laying of the Moscow type) (◉ on the map below)
A kind of column station, made according to a typical Moscow project at shallow depth. These are three-span stations made of precast reinforced concrete structures, have a length of 102 to 169 meters and a column pitch of 4 to 6 meters. In total, there are 38 columns located in two lines at such stations, which is why they were nicknamed "centipedes". It looks pretty dull. Fortunately, there are only two such stations in Saint-Petersburg.
Such stations are very cheap, they are built in an open (pit) way. Almost all typical "centipedes" in Russia have two lobbies at both ends, opening into underground passages.
Horizontal elevators (◉ on the map below)
"Horizontal elevator" is a kind of column-wall station of deep laying, characterized by load-bearing partitions separating the island passenger platform from the two tracks located on the sides. Passengers enter trains through automatic platform doors located in the partitions. Because of the similarity with elevators, in which the sliding doors of the cabin open synchronously with the doors of the shaft on the floor, this type of station was nicknamed "horizontal elevators".
The world's first station of this type - Park Pobedy - was opened in 1961 in Leningrad. Initially, the platform doors on it were frosted glass. Today, all "horizontal elevators" have metal, opaque doors.
Stations of this type are cheaper to build and provide the maximum possible safety of passengers by preventing people from falling onto the rails and developed control automation of doors, but they are noticeably more expensive to operate due to the presence of a large number of constantly working mechanical and electronic devices. Such stations require specially designed rolling stock with exactly equal distance between all doors. And, finally, they reduce the capacity and increase the requirements for train drivers due to the need for precise alignment of station door openings with train doors at each stop (the error at a stop is no more than 45 centimeters, trains regularly miss and are forced to move back or forward a little after stopping for accurate alignment).
Because of this, the last station of this type - Zvyozdnaya was built in 1972, and then single-arch type stations were built.
Some renaissance of "horizontal elevators" are column stations with a closed air circuit, but there the design of the station and the logic of the use of doors are different.
Column-wall stations (◉ on the map below)
A type of column station for conditions of great depth (high ground pressure) or possible lateral displacements of soils. In such stations, part of the gaps between the columns is replaced by solid piers.
The piers improve resistance to mountain pressure and lateral displacements, which is relevant at depths of 50 meters or more. However, of course, the piers reduce the capacity of the station, because they interfere with the free passage of passengers.
Column stations with a closed air circuit (◉ on the map below)
A new kind of column stations with shore platforms, unlike one island platform in conventional "horizontal elevators".
The closed air circuit in this case is implemented by platform sliding doors that are not part of the station design. The meaning of such a technical solution is to ensure the safety of passengers at the station, as well as the separation of the air circuits of the station and the tunnel to improve air conditioning conditions. The disadvantages of the solution are the same as for "horizontal elevators".
Pylon stations (◉ on the map below)
At pylon-type stations, the lining of the central hall and the station tunnels do not intersect and are interconnected by pylons with passages between them. That is, these are three separate independent tunnels with passages. This is the oldest type of deep-laying stations. All stations of this type were built in a closed way at depths from 15 to 105 meters.
With high resistance to ground pressure, stations of this type have a relatively low throughput due to the limited width of passages between halls.
Stations with a single arch (◉ on the map below)
Stations of this type are a single-volume hall with a high vault, in which the island platform, station tracks and sub-platform rooms are located.
The project of a single-vaulted deep-laying station was developed in Leningrad. In the USSR, the first such stations were opened in 1975 Политехническаяru and Площадь Мужестваru.
This type of station provides high technological efficiency and mechanization of work during construction. After sinking the support and track tunnels, the station arch is formed above them, and then the soil inside the arch is removed. The capacity of such stations is also maximum, because there are no requirements for the accuracy of the train stop, and ideally nothing interferes with the free passage of passengers.
However, such stations require continuous construction, i.e. they do not tolerate irregular financing. Therefore, such stations have not been built in Russia since the dashing 90s. The choice was made in favor of pylon and column-wall stations, because they can be preserved at any stage of construction without harm to the future fate of the station.
Two-tier stations with a single arch (◉ on the map below)
Unique for the USSR and very rare in the world type of two-tier station under a single common vault. In fact, this is a two-story railway station built in a single vault of large diameter at great depth, and even partially under the riverbed.
There are three similar stations in the USA, but they are built at a shallow depth (up to 30 meters). In our case, for a depth of 64 meters under the channel of the Malaya Neva, this design is completely unique.
In the future, with the construction of the Ring Metro Line in Saint-Petersburg, this station will become a full-fledged transfer hub, but it is impossible to name the timing of this event now.
◉ Ground stations
◉ Column stations
◉ Centipedes (column stations of shallow laying of the Moscow type)
◉ Horizontal elevators
◉ Column-wall stations
◉ Column stations with a closed air circuit
◉ Pylon stations
◉ Stations with a single arch
◉ Two-tier stations with a single arch